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CBD is a phytocannabnoid i.e., a plant derived cannabinoid and is found in Cannabis plants. For sciency people, the structure is shown here. CBD oil, which contains CBD, has been used since ancient times for its health benefits, purportedly to reduce pain, inflammation, seizures and anxiety. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has a patent on the therapeutic properties of CBD (US. Patent No. 6,630,507). Unlike the compound tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), shown here, CBD has no psychoactive properties whatsoever.

Full spectrum hemp oil is an extract from Cannabis plants that contains CBD as a major component but also contains other natural constituents from the plant. For example, full spectrum hemp oil contains cannabinoids such as cannabinol and cannabigerol; vitamins such as A, C, and E; B complex vitamins such as riboflavin, thiamine, and niacin; minerals such as magnesium, zinc, potassium, calcium, phosphorous and iron; essential fatty acids such as Omega 3 and Omega 6; and terpenes such as Myrcene, Beta-caryophyllene, Terpinolene, Linalool, alpha-Pinene, beta-Pinene. Full spectrum hemp oil does not contain THC. Pure or crystalline CBD can be chemically synthesized or isolated from a full spectrum hemp oil.

Hemp seeds have a high content of oil containing 25-35% fatty acids but also contain about 20-25% protein, 20-30% carbohydrates and 10-15% fiber along with trace amounts of minerals (see. Cary Leizer et. al. “The Composition of Hemp Seed Oil and Its Potential as an Important Source of Nutrition”, J. Nutraceuticals, Functional & Med. Foods, Vol. 2(4) 2000). The fatty acids include linoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha linolenic acid (omega-3) as its major polyunsaturated fats. The ratios of these fats is alleged to be optimal for nutrition as is the additional presence of gamma-linolenic acid. CBD is a very minor constituent in Hemp Seed Oil as it is not produced in the seeds themselves and can be considered a “contaminant” if present. There is a lot of information about Hemp Seed Oil, I found this chart comparing the “Fatty Acid Composition of Nut and Seed Oils” interesting: http://nutiva.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Hemp-Compositon-Chart1.pdf.

There are many different cultivars of the Cannabis plant. The designation "Hemp" is typically associated with cultivars that have low amounts of THC, which is a psychoactive component that makes you "high." In fact, the 2018 US Hemp Bill defines Hemp as having less than 0.3% THC. By contrast "Marijuana" is considered Cannabis with high levels of THC. To say CBD is not psychoactive is a bit simplistic since, although it doesn't get you "high" in the way THC does, CBD purported can reduce anxiety. Cannabis cultivars that are cultivated to have low THC ("Hemp") look very similar to the Cannabis cultivars that are cultivated to have high THC (Marijuana). The plants are short and bushy with, ideally, many flowers or "trichomes" which contain the bulk of the cannabinoids. Hemp is also associated with the Cannabis cultivars that are grown as very tall plants with long stalks, up to 4 meters, where they are harvested for their fibre.

CBD is a chemical compound, so it’s the same whether it comes from hemp or marijuana. However, any CBD derived from Marijuana would have some THC in it and if not would have to be highly processed to isolate the CBD from THC.

As we use the term it’s the same as hemp oil. There are several extraction methods in the industry, the two most common being CO2 extraction and Ethanol extraction. Both methods rely on the affinity of the extractant (supercritical “liquid” CO2 or alcohol) and the fact that the extractant is easy to separate from the extracted oils. Our hemp oil is extracted using the ethanol extraction method.

Our extended release capsules are designed to be acid resistant and dissolve at a pH of about 5.5 or higher. What this provides is a capsule that is protected in the stomach, which is at a pH lower than about 2, and which only dissolves once it reaches the intestine, where the pH is higher than 5. This minimizes any acid decomposition of the capsule components and they are delivered intact to the intestine where the materials can be absorbed.

The oral bioavailability of a drug or supplement refers to how much of the material that is ingested gets to the circulatory system (bloodstream). In most cases oral delivery of a drug or supplement is the most convenient, but it can have low bioavailability. For example, pure CBD can have low bioavailability because of metabolism to various compounds (metabolites) caused by the actions of enzymes of the gastrointestinal lumen, gut wall enzymes, bacterial enzymes, and liver enzymes. One method to increase the bioavailability is co-administration of CBD with fatty acids. Which is one of the reasons we like to formulate with Hemp Extract oils which have long-chain fatty acids such as Omega-6 and Omega-3…you don’t need to co-administer with anything, its all in the capsule!

We are starting with a selection of 10mg, 20mg and 30 mg CBD in our capsules. In weight percent this comes to about 1.6%, 3.2% and 4.8% respectively. Generally, about 90% of the cannabinoids from the extract is CBD so that leaves about 1-3 mg of other cannabinoids (no THC) in the products. The rest of the product is hemp oil extract from the stalks and seeds of hemp.

I’m not a doctor (or at least not a medical doctor, I have a Ph. D not an M.D) so you should go to your trusted medical practitioner for advice. There is information on line for suggested amounts depending the use.

Our hemp extract is US grown and our hemp seed oil is from our friendly neighbor to the North (Canada). We like Canada and we couldn’t find a source of hemp seed oil from the US. The CBD comes with the hemp extract, so its US sourced. We planning on buying pure CBD (crystalline) and have a US supplier lined up.

Our suppliers provide 3rd party laboratory analysis of the materials. For example, the hemp extract is tested for potency, toxins, microbial contamination, heavy metals and pesticides. A copy is available upon request.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a complex signaling network within the human body that uses specialized compounds known as cannabinoids to control various bodily processes by interacting with different receptors and regulatory enzymes. Our bodies have 2 receptors for cannabinoids: CB1 receptors and CB2 receptors. CB1 receptors are found all around the body, but many of them are in the brain. These CB1 receptors deal with coordination and movement, pain, emotions and mood, thinking, appetite, and memories, among others. CB2 receptors are more common in the immune system. They affect inflammation and pain. It had been proposed that CBD acts on these CB2 receptors, but it appears now more likely that CBD does not act on either receptor directly. Instead, it seems to influence the body to use more of its own cannabinoids. (https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/317221.php)

Briefly this is the view that in some cases plants are better drugs than the natural products isolated from them. With respect to CBD, it is the view that any benefits of CBD are enhanced by the other compounds associated in the hemp plants, such as the other cannabinoids, terpenes, fats and proteins.

Refrigeration is not needed but certainly will extend the shelf life. Make sure the cap is kept on containers to avoid condensing water on or in the products, some of our products, such as the capsules, will dissolve or soften in water…they are supposed to so that the release the contents in your body. Similarly, don’t leave the products out in sunlight. Hemp oils is a natural product and compounds in it can degrade if exposed to sunlight for extended periods of time. The brown bottles protect from direct exposure.

Organic does not apply to any hemp products which at this time can’t be certified anywhere in the US as organically grown this does not mean that farmers don’t follow US organic regulations. Our supplier only obtains hemp that is non-GMO, and organically grown. There is analysis by 3rd party laboratories making sure there are no pesticides or toxins in the extract. The capsules we use are vegan, made from Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC), water, sorbitol, silicon dioxide and Hypromellose Phthalate (HPMCP) enteric coating. Hemp oil extracts are also vegan.

The pictures here should explain things. Capsules come in two parts, a container and a lid that fits and seals. The container is filled and then the cap is pushed on creating a capsule. Because the cap is curved, it holds air in it. This is the air you see in the capsule.

We chose clear enteric capsules for our products so what you are seeing is the hemp extract which in its raw form is a dark green colored oil. This can be filtered but we don’t believe in taking out the natural ingredients. Filtering also doesn’t increase the amount of CBD, it just takes stuff out. An empty clear capsule and a hemp extract filled capsule is shown here.

1. We didn’t want dyes or coloring added to the capsules. The base material without the coloring for the enteric capsules is a clear material so we are minimizing the amount of additives.
2. We also felt we didn’t want to “hide” the color of the material. We like knowing what we are ingesting so we thought our customers might also prefer to know what the oil looks like.

Our tinctures can be added to food or taken sublingually. Sublingual literally means “under the tongue” and refers to a method for taking a substance. For example, to take our tinctures sublingually the dropper supplied with the bottle is used to place the CBD oil under the tongue. The oil is held there, ideally for at least about 30 seconds and possibly for a few minutes. The membrane thickness is low in this part of the mouth, about 100-200 microns. For comparison, the roof of the mouth has a membrane thickness of five times this. Therefore, adsorption is fastest if the material is delivered under the tongue. Also, under the membrane, there is connective tissue with a lot of capillaries. Therefore, the active ingredients in the tincture can be relatively quickly absorbed through the sublingual membranes and into the capillaries and general circulation. Taken this way, the effects are felt within minutes.
Oral administration, i.e., swallowing the material tends to be slower acting because the material must pass through the digestive system. This can take one or two hours. In addition, without some protection, such as our enteric capsules, the material is exposed to very low pH associated with the stomach which can degrade many materials. However, capsules tend to have a longer lasting effect than tinctures.
Of course, you can also use our tinctures by adding to food. For example, they can be a great additive to coffee. The effects might not be as strong, but for those with the acquired taste, it can be a nice additive.

The suggested amount of CBD for your pets depends on their size. Generally, you can give 1mg CBD for every 10lb. Using our Pals Naturals, we suggest the following:
1 dropper = 5mg
6 drops = 1mg
You should consult your veterinarian first before treating your pet with CBD.

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